The tool you want for this is wmctrl, it’s a command that lets you interact with an X Window manager and you’ll probably find it’s already installed.

wmctrl -r ':ACTIVE:' -b toggle,fullscreen

-r specifies a target window for an action to apply our action to.

:ACTIVE is the name of the target window. We’re using a special name here which targets whatever window is currently active, but you can specify any window here too (hint: use wmctrl -l to list all available windows).

-b lets us manipulate the window properties of the chosen window. You can either add, remove, or toggle up to 2 properties simultaneously. Why 2? Because some actions (such as maximising a window) are made up of 2 shell command line arguments.

toggle,fullscreen are the 1st and 2nd property required by the -b action to put you in full screen mode.